MBBS in China (Bachelor of Medicine and Surgery), is becoming popular for international students, the programs field taught in English is getting more and more wide, like Study MBBS IN CHINA (Bachelor of Medicine and Surgery),, BDS IN CHINA (Bachelor of Dentistry Surgery), and programs for Master degree of Medicine, Master degree of Dentistry in English are also available China, a country that is the factory to the world, In 2020 China is expected to be the super power of the world. Shanghai in China today is no lesser than New York, as they are so developed.
MBBS OR Bachelor of Medicine, Bachelor of Surgery, are the two first professional degrees awarded upon graduation from medical school in medicine and surgery by universities in various countries that follow the tradition of the United Kingdom. The naming suggests that they are two separate degrees; however, in practice, they are usually treated as one and awarded together. The degrees of Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery are currently awarded in various forms in institutions in Australia, Bangladesh, the Republic of China, Egypt, Fiji, Ghana, Guyana, Hong Kong, Bharat, Iraq, the Republic of Ireland, Jamaica, Jordan, Kenya, Kuwait, Libya, Malawi, Malaysia, Mauritius, Mexico, Myanmar, Nepal, New Zealand, Nigeria, Pakistan, Papua New Guinea, Samoa, Saudi Arabia, Sierra Leone, Singapore, South Africa, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Tanzania, Trinidad and Tobago, Uganda, the United Arab Emirates, the United Kingdom, Zambia and Zimbabwe.
In many countries, the degrees are awarded after an undergraduate course lasting five or six years. In some cases, a graduate in another discipline may subsequently enter a special graduate-entry medical course, reduced in duration to account for relevant material covered or learning skills acquired during the first degree. In some cases the old first year courses (for six year degrees) in the basic sciences of physics, chemistry and biology have been abolished, and that standard has to be reached by means of school examinations before entry. However, in most countries a newly-graduated Bachelor of Medicine and Surgery must spend a specified period in internship before they can obtain full qualification as a medical practitioner. Historically, Bachelor of Medicine was also the primary medical degree conferred by institutions in the United States and Canada, such as Pennsylvania, Harvard, Toronto, Maryland, and Columbia. Several early North American medical schools were (for the most part) founded by physicians and surgeons who had trained in England and Scotland. University medical education in England culminated with the Bachelor of Medicine qualification and in Scotland the Doctor of Medicine, until from the mid-19th century when the public bodies that regulated medical practice at the time required practitioners in Scotland as well as England to hold the dual Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery degrees. Throughout the 1800s, North American medical schools switched to the tradition of the Ancient universities of Scotland and began conferring Doctor of Medicine rather than Bachelor of Medicine, the first institution to make such a switch being King's College (now Columbia University) in New York.
In the countries that award bachelors' degrees in medicine, however, Doctor of Medicine denotes a holder of a higher doctorate and is reserved for medical practitioners who undertake research and submit a thesis in the field of medicine. Nevertheless, those holding Bachelor of Medicine, Bachelor of Surgery are usually referred to by the courtesy title of "Doctor" and use the prefix "Dr".ClassificationMedical degrees differ from other undergraduate degrees in that they are professional qualifications which lead holders to enter a particular career upon receipt. This is not the case with most other undergraduate degrees, with the exception of qualifications in pharmacy, dentistry, veterinary medicine and qualifying law degrees, so whilst the Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery are undergraduate or graduate degrees (depending on the institution), they are perhaps more accurately conceptualized as a so-called first professional degree. Bachelor of Medicine, Bachelor of Surgery is usually awarded as general/ordinary degrees, not as honors degrees, and as such the graduate is not classified as for honors degrees in other subjects.
However, at many institutions (for example the University of Manchester in England and the University of Dundee in Scotland) it is possible for the degrees to be awarded with Honors (i.e. MB ChB (Hons)) or with Commendation, if the board of examiners recognizes exceptional performance throughout the degree course. Very few of these are awarded. More often, it is possible to study one subject for an extra year for an intercalated honors degree. This is usually a Bachelor of Science (BSc), Bachelor of Medical Science (Medics), Bachelor of Medical Biology (BMedBiol) or similar: at Oxford and Cambridge in England and Dublin in Ireland Bachelor of Arts degrees are awarded. At a few universities most medical students obtain an ordinary degree in science as well: when the University of Edinburgh had a six year course, the third year was followed by award of an ordinary BSc (MedSci). In Australia, The University of Melbourne in Australia offers an Arts Degree (BA) to a medical student on the completion of two extra years of undergraduate study, and Monash University offers a Law degree (LLB); if the optional Law degree is undertaken, on completion of their degree the student may choose to do a one-year internship at a hospital and become a doctor, or spend one year doing articles to practise thereafter as a lawyer.
At the University of Nottingham in England all medical students on the five year course obtain a Bachelor of Medical Sciences (BMedSci) degree without an extra intercalated year.
The Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland along with certain National University of Ireland medical schools offers a BMedSci qualification on completion of a thesis based on 2-3 months of summer research; only students achieving honors in their preclinical courses are eligible to receive the degree.
At Imperial College London certain medical students are able to extend their intercalated year to an extra three years, thus temporarily exiting the MBBS course to complete a PhD. Upon completion of the PhD, the student is required to sit the remaining 2 years of the medicine course in order to receive his/her MBBS degree. Progression Medical school graduates are only entitled to use the courtesy title "Doctor" upon registration as a medical practitioner with the relevant regulatory body in their respective country. Medical graduates are also eligible to sit various postgraduate examinations, including examinations for membership and fellowship of professional institutions (such as Membership of the Royal College of Surgeons), postgraduate Masters degrees (such as a Master of Surgery or Master of Obstetrics) and a postgraduate doctorate in medicine (eg Doctor of Medicine, if earned in Ireland, the UK or Commonwealth nations), and board certification examinations.
Bachelor of Dental Surgery ( B.D.S ) is a first professional degree programme in dentistry. Other equivalent dental degrees are the BChD, DDS, DMD, BDent, and BDSc
Dentistry is the known evaluation, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of diseases, disorders and conditions of the oral cavity, maxillofacial area and the adjacent and associated structures and their impact on the human body. Dentistry is widely considered necessary for complete overall health. Those in the practice of dentistry are known as dentists. Other people aiding in oral health service include dental assistants, dental hygienists, dental technicians, and dental therapists.
Dentistry is that branch of medicine which deals with the study and practice of diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of diseases of the mouth, the maxilla, and the face.
The course is divided into 4 years of training and 1 year compulsory rotatory internship.
Dentistry usually encompasses very important practices related to the oral cavity. The most common treatments involve the dental surgery on the teeth as a treatment for dental caries. Decayed teeth can be filled with dental amalgam, dental composite, dental porcelain and precious or non-precious metals. Oral and maxillofacial surgery is a more specialized form of dental surgery. Dentists can prescribe medication, x-rays, and devices for home or in-office use. Many oral diseases (such as bilateral odontogenic keratocysts) and abnormalities (such as several unerupted teeth) can indicate systemic, neural, or other diseases. Most general practitioners of dentistry perform restorative, prosthetic, endodontic therapy, periodontal therapy, and exodontia, as well as performing examinations. Many general practitioners are comfortable treating complex cases, as well as placing implants and extracting third molars(wisdom teeth). All dentists must achieve a certain degree of skill in various disciplines in order to graduate from dental school and become an accredited dentist.
Dentists also encourage prevention of dental caries through proper hygiene (tooth brushing and flossing), fluoride, and tooth polishing, although excessive brushing can cause damage to the gums. Dental sealants are plastic materials applied to one or more teeth, for the intended purpose of preventing dental caries or other forms of tooth decay. Recognized but less conventional preventive agents include xylitol, which is bacteriostatic, casein derivatives, and proprietary products such as Cavistat BasicMints.
In addition to general dentistry, there are about 9 recognized dental specialties in the US, Canada, and Australia. To become a specialist requires one to train in a residency or advanced graduate training program. Once residency is completed, the doctor is granted a certificate of specialty training. Many specialty programs have optional or required advanced degrees such as a masters degree: (MS, MSc, MDS, MSD, MDSc, MMSc, or MDent), doctoral degree: (DClinDent, DMSc, or PhD), or medical degree: (MD/MBBS specific to Maxillofacial Surgery and sometimes Oral Medicine).
- Dental public health (study of dental epidemiology and social health policies),
- Endodontics (root canal therapy and study of diseases of the dental pulp),
- Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology (study, diagnosis, and sometimes the treatment of oral and maxillofacial related diseases),
- Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology (study and radiologic interpretation of oral and maxillofacial diseases),
- Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery (extractions, implants, and facial surgery),
- Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopaedics (straightening of teeth and modification of midface and mandibular growth),
- Periodontics (study and treatment of diseases of the periodontium (non-surgical and surgical), and placement and maintenance of dental implants),
- Pediatric dentistry (i.e. dentistry for children, formerly known as "pedodontics"),
- Prosthodontics (dentures, bridges and the restoration of implants. Some prosthodontists further their training in "oral and maxillofacial prosthodontics"--a discipline concerned with the replacement of missing facial structures--such as ears, eyes, nose, etc.)
Specialists in these fields are designated registrable (U.S. "Board Eligible") and warrant exclusive titles such as orthodontist, oral and maxillofacial surgeon, endodontist, pediatric dentist, periodontist, or prosthodontist upon satisfying certain local (U.S. "Board Certified"), (Australia/NZ: "FRACDS"), or (Canada: "FRCD(C)") registry requirements.
- Dental anesthesiology, the study of how to relieve pain through advanced use of local and general anesthesia techniques is not yet considered to be one of the recognized dental specialties. However, CODA is in the process of accrediting all dental anesthesiology programs.
- Special needs dentistry is dentistry for those with developmental and acquired disabilities. It is a recognized specialty by the Royal Australasian College of Dental Surgeons. It has also been recently recognised as a specialty by the General Dental Council in the United Kingdom. The American Board of Special Care Dentistry is hoping to also obtain accreditation for special needs dentistry by CODA.
- Forensic odontology consists of the gathering and use of dental evidence in law. This may be performed by any dentist with experience or training in this field. The function of the forensic dentist is primarily documentation and verification of identity.
- Geriatric dentistry or geriodontics is the delivery of dental care to older adults involving the diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of problems associated with normal ageing and age-related diseases as part of an interdisciplinary team with other health care professionals.
- Aviation dentistry, a subcategory of (military) aviation medicine deals with dental topics related to aircrews, e.g., dental barotrauma and barodontalgia. In addition, the aircrew population is a unique high-risk group to several diseases and harmful conditions due to irregular work shifts with irregular self-oral care habits and irregular meals (usually carbonated drinks and high energy snacks) and work-related stress.
- (References: Wikipedia)